Technical Report Draft 1

Background

As students of Singapore Institute of Technology (SIT), we have noticed that the Canopy canteen at the Dover campus is often packed with students and staff between 12 p.m. till 2p.m. daily. Given that student’s lunch breaks are mostly an hour, it is often a struggle to enjoy a meal without the pressure of time before the next lesson begins. A survey was conducted among 27 students showed that 60% of the respondents indicated that they spend approximately 5 to 10 minutes every day circling within the canteen of their choice looking for seats. These results are not inclusive of time taken to walk between crowded canteens searching for available seats as well as time taken queueing up for food. As such, it has become A-Team’s interest to develop a solution to help reduce unnecessary wastage of time.

The 3 canteens Canopy Café, iEat and the Crown Coffee at SIT Dover campus offer a total seating capacity of ____. Canopy canteen has proven to be the preferred lunch venue for students as statistics show that 78% of respondents chose the canteen due to its affordability and wide selection of food. As a result, Canopy canteen becomes overcrowded during lunch hours and patrons tend to spend a considerable amount of time circulating the canteen searching for seats.

Although an additional canteen that is identical to the Canopy canteen could be a possible solution to address the issue of an overcrowding canteen. It may not be feasible due to the high cost of construction incurred by the institution as well as the restriction of limited space within the Dover campus. Therefore, A-Team has come up with an alternative solution which aims to manage crowd control within canteens. This is done by providing real time information of the available seats in each specific canteen so as to influence the decision of students and staff members on whether they should dine at that canteen.

Purpose Statement

The aim of this report is to propose to the estate management of SIT to approve the installation of sensors at the 3 canteens at Dover campus. This report includes; benefits of implementing this system, cost of implementation, stakeholders involved and its impacts, limitations as well as solutions to address the issues raised.

Problem Statement

Instead of wasting time on finding seats at an overcrowded canteen, students and staff members should be able to determine the available seats before patronizing the canteen during peak periods. During lunch hours, students and staff members often waste a substantial amount of time looking for seats in the canteen. There is a need to introduce an mobile application that indicates to users the location of available seats in SIT canteens at a specific point of time to influence students and staff members to patronize a less crowded canteen.

 

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Reader’s Response Draft 3

 

In the article “3D building models help bring sustainability into construction”, Jenkins (2015) discusses the effectiveness of building information modelling (BIM) as well as the challenges of implementing it. The introduction of BIM has revolutionized the building and construction industry.  According to Monswhite (as quoted in Jenkins, 2015), the change of use from two to three-dimensional design with BIM enables the industry to reduce construction cost and optimise space management.  While BIM boast advantages, Jenkins asserts that BIM is yet to be widely accepted in the building and construction industry. This is supported by Charlton, chief of consultancy Space Group, who argues that majority of the key players in the project lack collaboration and refuse to accept changes due to their preference towards traditional methods (Jenkins, 2015). In addition, Jenkins also cited from Coventry University’s sustainability director, Smithson, who states that these key players are unwilling to explore the functions of BIM. As a result, Smithson and her team operate the immersive simulation centre to educate industry professionals about the uses of BIM and its benefits. Although the article suggests “stubborn preference to traditional methods” has hindered the progress of integrating BIM in the buildings and construction industry, there are other factors contributing to BIM not being universally accepted.

One factor affecting the universal implementation of BIM is its inability to be fully accommodated and integrated crucial systems used by industry professionals onto a single software. Due to its relatively new nature in the market, software manufactures are constantly working to improve the BIM software (InfoComm International, no date). To complicate matters, the lack of standard modern building protocols when constructing the software has resulted in poor compatibility of functions and uses of BIM. This is supported by Rezgui (2014), who states “available protocols do not concurrently consider the enabling technology and the variables affecting its deployment on projects such as interoperability required for different BIM work-streams and the alignment of the BIM work streams with the country specific policy context”.

At the same time, key stakeholders traditionally rely heavily on their own industry specific software to generate crucial information (Kivits & Furneaux, 2013). As a result of BIM’s current limitations, the lack of interoperability to integrate these functions into a single sophisticated model discourages companies from using the software in their projects

Another factor affecting the universal implementation BIM is the high cost of investment. It is imperative that organizations have strong IT facilities to compliment this sophisticated software so as to fully optimize its benefits (Liu, Xie, Tivendal, & Liu, 2015). According to a report by InfoComm International, existing software such as computer aided design (CAD) can be operated on laptop whereas BIM require expensive high specification workstations to function (InfoComm International, no date). In addition, further investments are required to train employees to be proficient with the software. This is supported by Carlin (2010), who states that due to the ever-changing advancement of technology, users of BIM have to undergo constant upgrading to keep tabs with the latest features and functions to improve productivity. Therefore, the high cost of equipment and training require companies to evaluate their financial position and make careful considerations before purchasing the BIM software.

In conclusion, although the issue of interoperability within the BIM software and its high cost have deterred companies from implementing them, cost arguably remains the biggest challenge for organizations. Poor current economic projections have forced organizations to take precautionary measures to reduce spending. In addition, small medium enterprise (SME)s of the industry may not have the financial capability to purchase such expensive product. Therefore, companies should carefully review their financial statuses and decide if their current position allows them to invest in such software.

 

 

References

Carlin, E. M. (2010, October 12). The Legal Risks of Building Information Modeling (BIM). Retrieved on October 6, 2017 from http://www.constructionlawnowblog.com/design-and-technology/the-legal-risks-of-building-information-modeling-bim/

InfoComm International. (no date). Building Information Modeling, 11-12. Retrieved on October 3, 2017 from https://www.infocomm.org/cps/rde/xbcr/infocomm/Brochure_BIM.pdf

Jenkin, M. (13 April, 2015). 3D building models help bring sustainability into construction . Retrieved on September 25, 2017 from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2015/apr/13/bim-technology-design-business-sustainability-construction

Kivits, R. A., & Furneaux, C. (2013). BIM: Enabling Sustainability and Asset Management through Knowledge Management. The Scientific World Journal Vol 2013, 14. Retrieved on October 5, 2017 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/983721

Liu, S., Xie, B., Tivendal, L., & Liu, C. (2015). Critical Barriers to BIM Implementation in the AEC Industry. International Journal of Marketing Studies; Vol 7, No.6, 163-164. Retrieved on October 4, 2017 from http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ijms/article/view/55355/

Rezgui, Y. (2014). BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING: PROTOCOLS FOR COLLABORATIVE DESIGN PROCESSES. Journal of Information Technology in Construction, 24. Retrieved on October 5, 2017 from http://www.itcon.org/papers/2014_7.content.00672.pdf

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Reader’s Response Draft 1

In the article “3D building models help bring sustainability into construction”, Jenkins (2015) discusses the effectiveness of building information modelling (BIM) as well as the challenges of implementing it. The introduction of BIM has revolutionized the building and construction industry.  According to Monswhite (as quoted in Jenkins, 2015), the change of use from two to three-dimensional design with BIM enables the industry to reduce construction cost and optimise space management.  While BIM boast advantages, Jenkins asserts that BIM is yet to be widely accepted in the building and construction industry. This is supported by Charlton, chief of consultancy Space Group, who argues that majority of the key players in the project lack collaboration and refuse to accept changes due to their preference towards traditional methods. In addition, Coventry’s University sustainability director, Smithson, states that these key players are unwilling to explore the functions of BIM. Therefore, Smithson and her team operates the immersive simulation centre to educate industry professionals the uses of BIM and its benefits. Although the article suggests “stubborn preference to traditional methods” have hindered the progress of integrating BIM in the buildings and construction industry, there are other contributing factors to why BIM has yet to be universally accepted.

A barrier to implementing BIM is due to its high cost of investment. It is imperative that organizations must have strong IT facilities to compliment this sophisticated software so as to fully optimize its benefits (Liu, Xie, Tivendal, & Liu, 2015). According to a report by InfoComm International, existing softwares such as computer aided design (CAD) can be operated using laptop whereas BIM require dedicated high specification workstations to operate  (InfoComm International, no date). In addition, further investments are required to train employees to be proficient with the software. This is supported by Carlin (2010), which states that due to the everchanging advancements of technology, users of BIM have to undergo constant upgrading to keep tabs with the latest features and functions to improve productivity. Therefore, the high cost of equipment and training involved in implementing BIM require smaller companies to evaluate their financial position and make proper considerations to before purchasing the software.

Although BIM is an advance piece of technology, it has yet to fully accommodate and integrate the wide spectrum of systems used by industry professionals. Due to its relatively new nature in the market, many software manufactures are constantly upgrading BIM softwares in seek to further improve it (InfoComm International, no date). In addition, key stakeholders remain heavily reliant on their own specific softwares to generate results as current BIM softwares lack interoperability to integrate these functions into a single sophisticated model (Kivits & Furneaux, 2013). This lead to inconsistency and incompatibility of different existing softwares.   To further complicate matters, lack of modern building protocols resulted in little standardization of concepts and uses in the software. This is supported by Rezgui, which states “available protocols do not concurrently consider the enabling technology and the variables affecting its deployment on projects such as interoperability required for different BIM work-streams and the alignment of the BIM work streams with the country specific policy context”(Rezgui, 2014).

Summary Draft 1

In the article “3D building models help bring sustainability into construction”, Jenkins (2015) discusses the effectiveness of building information modelling (BIM) as well as the challenges of implementing it. The introduction of BIM has revolutionized the building and construction industry.  According to Monswhite (as quoted in Jenkins, 2015), the change of use from two to three-dimensional design with BIM enables the industry to reduce construction cost and optimise space management.  While BIM boast advantages, Jenkins asserts that BIM is yet to be widely accepted in the building and construction industry. This is supported by Charlton, chief of consultancy Space Group, who argues that majority of the key players in the project lack collaboration and refuse to accept changes due to their preference towards traditional methods. In addition, Coventry’s University sustainability director, Smithson, states that these key players are unwilling to explore the functions of BIM. Therefore, Smithson and her team operates the immersive simulation centre to educate industry professionals the uses of BIM and its benefits. Although the article suggests “stubborn preference to traditional methods” have hindered the progress of integrating BIM in the buildings and construction industry, there are other contributing factors to why BIM has yet to be universally accepted.

Self-introduction

Dear Professor Blackstone

I am Joel Leow Zhi Yuan and I am writing to you to introduce myself as a student in your Effective Communication Class SIE2016-SEM05. I graduated from Temasek Polytechnic (TP) with a diploma in hospitality and tourism management in 2014. Upon completion of the diploma, I took interest in green buildings and sustainable infrastructure which landed me into the field of engineering and brought me to this course.

My passion revolves around music and I love everything there is to it. During my free time, I wear the hat of a choir conductor and serve on Sunday mass services. With the knowledge gained as a student conductor in TP Chorale, I provide vocal training to people from all walks of life seeking comfort in religion at the Church of the Holy Trinity. It is the “Goosebumps” that thrills me during singing on Sunday services which makes me yearn for music more.

A challenge that I may face in this module would be providing spontaneous responses during lessons especially when grades are of concern. My legs turn to jelly whenever I am made to present especially at a formal environment. My goal for this module is to apply the appropriate techniques required to communicate effectively and deliver a concise presentation filled with self-confidence.

An attribute that defines me is my determination to achieve what I set out for. I believe this value will take me far as I am one who does not rest till the job is complete. I understand the journey ahead is a challenging one, however, with resilience of mind and spirit I am determined to move mountains.

In the words of Saint Louis Marie De Montfort, Age Quod Agis, which means  to do well in whatever you do.

Yours Sincerely,

Joel Leow Zhi Yuan

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